The sum of two counter-propagating waves (of equal amplitude and frequency) creates a standing wave . Standing waves commonly arise when a boundary blocks further propagation of the wave, thus causing wave reflection, and therefore introducing a counter-propagating wave. For example, when a violin string is displaced, transverse waves propagate out to where the string is held in place at the bridge and the nut , where the waves are reflected back. At the bridge and nut, the two opposed waves are in antiphase and cancel each other, producing a node . Halfway between two nodes there is an antinode , where the two counter-propagating waves enhance each other maximally. There is no net propagation of energy over time.
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