Is low testosterone genetic

For both men and women, an alternative to testosterone replacement is low-dose clomifene treatment, which can stimulate the body to naturally increase hormone levels while avoiding infertility and other side effects that can result from direct hormone replacement therapy. [17] This therapy has only been shown helpful for men with secondary hypogonadism. Recent studies have shown it can be safe and effective monotherapy for up to 2 years in patients with intact testicular function and impaired function of the HPTA( http:///ijir/journal/v15/n3/full/ ). Clomifene blocks estrogen from binding to some estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, thereby causing an increased release gNRH and subsequently LH from the pituitary. Clomifene is a Selective Estrogen Reuptake Modulator (SERM). Generally clomifene does not have adverse effects at the doses used for this purpose. Clomifene at much higher doses is used to induce ovulation and has significant adverse effects in such a setting.

In men, low testosterone levels in the body can be supplemented by hormone replacement with testosterone. Testosterone replacement therapy can be prescribed as an intramuscular injection usually given on a biweekly basis; as a patch or gel placed on the skin, or as putty that is applied to the gums of the mouth. Each of the treatments has its risks and benefits. The decision as to which form of testosterone to use depends upon the clinical situation. Discussions between the patient and health care professional often helps decide which medication to use.

In the United States there are currently no preparations that are FDA approved for testosterone replacement for women.

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

Is low testosterone genetic

is low testosterone genetic

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