Medicine for low t

Indian medicine penetrated into the Chinese world between the 4th and 8th centuries. Ayurveda greatly influenced traditional Chinese medicine during its formation [24] [25] [26] [27] Accupunture may have origin in ancient India [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] Indian medical knowledge of internal medicine , surgery , obstetrics , gynecology , pediatrics , ophthalmology , Otorhinolaryngology and dentistry was brought in China. Kashyapa Samhita was translated into Chinese during the Middle Ages. [35] [36] Kashyapa Samhita specially deals with pediatrics, gynecology, and obstetrics [37] Another Indian medical work Kumara Tantra of Ravana, which mainly deals with paediatric diseases, was translated into Chinese. [38] According to book of sui and Book of Tang eleven Indian medical works were translated into Chinese. [39] Indian monks introduced surgery in China. Before the arrival of Buddhism surgical techniques were unknown within China [40] [41] Indian monks and translators themselves had a good understanding of medicine. An Shigao translated an Indian medical work into Chinese which dealt with 404 diseases [42] Yijing (monk) went to India and brought back some 400 Buddhist translated texts which includes many medical works like Arsaprasamanasutra (A classic on curing all hemorrhoid-related diseases). [43] [44] [45] Yijing highlight India's superior medical knowledge, he praised the practise of Fasting among Indians, which they believed could cure imbalances of body within a matter of days. In China he Introduced hygiene practised in India. [46] Formulae for lung diseases were imported from India during the Tang dynasty . Indian ophthalmologists also practiced medicine in China. [47] Liu Yuxi wrote a poem about Indian Brahman who was an expert in removing cataracts with a golden needle. [39] Influence of Buddhists four element theory is clearly seen in Tao Hongjing writings. Indian medicine has a profound influence on Physician Sun Simiao 's medical work. In his work, he attributes many formulae to Jivaka Komarabhacca . [48] [49] [50] Sun Simiao mention many Indian surgical techniques for treatment of cataracts, glaucoma and other eye diseases [51] [48] Wang Tao also incorporated Indian ideas of medicine [52] [48] Ishinpō of Tanba Yasuyori records over ninety articles attributed to Indian physician jivaka [53]

Open defecation is practiced by more than one billion people throughout the world and leads to significant public health issues including infectious disease transmission and stunted growth in children. Zambia implemented community-led total sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention to eliminate open defecation in rural areas. To support CLTS and the attainment of open defecation free communities, chiefs were considered key agents of change and were empowered to drive CLTS and improve sanitation for their chiefdom. Chiefs were provided with data on access to sanitation in the chiefdom during chiefdom orientations prior to the initiation of CLTS within each community and encouraged to make goals of universal sanitation access within the community. Using a survival regression, we found that where chiefs were orientated and mobilized in CLTS, the probability that a village would achieve 100% coverage of adequate sanitation increased by 23% (hazard ratio = , 95% confidence interval = –, P = ). Using an interrupted time series, we found a 30% increase in the number of individuals with access to adequate sanitation following chiefdom orientations (95% confidence interval = –%). The mobilization and support of chiefs greatly improved the uptake of CLTS, and empowering them with increased CLTS knowledge and authority of the program in their chiefdom allowed chiefs to closely monitor village sanitation progress and follow-up with their headmen/headwomen. These key agents of change are important facilitators of public health goals such as the elimination of open defecation in Zambia by 2020.

On the medical education side, programs to teach evidence-based medicine have been created in medical schools in Canada, the US, the UK, Australia, and other countries. A 2009 study of UK programs found the more than half of UK medical schools offered some training in evidence-based medicine, although there was considerable variation in the methods and content, and EBM teaching was restricted by lack of curriculum time, trained tutors and teaching materials. [41] Many programs have been developed to help individual physicians gain better access to evidence. For example, Up-to-date was created in the early 1990s. [42] The Cochrane Center began publishing evidence reviews in 1993. [35] BMJ Publishing Group launched a 6-monthly periodical in 1995 called Clinical Evidence that provided brief summaries of the current state of evidence about important clinical questions for clinicians. [43] Since then many other programs have been developed to make evidence more accessible to practitioners.

Medicine for low t

medicine for low t

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